We consider learning representations (features) in the setting in which we have access to multiple unlabeled views of the data for learning while only one view is available for downstream tasks. Previous work on this problem has proposed several techniques based on deep neural networks, typically involving either autoencoder-like networks with a reconstruction objective or paired feedforward networks with a batch-style correlation-based objective. We analyze several techniques based on prior work, as well as new variants, and compare them empirically on image, speech, and text tasks. We find an advantage for correlation-based representation learning, while the best results on most tasks are obtained with our new variant, deep canonically correlated autoencoders (DCCAE). We also explore a stochastic optimization procedure for minibatch correlation-based objectives and discuss the time/performance trade-offs for kernel-based and neural network-based implementations.
Stochastic optimization,Computer science,Implementation,Correlation,Artificial intelligence,Artificial neural network,Feature learning,Deep neural networks,Machine learning,Feed forward